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The right way to fix that is remove the tenon. Use a heat gun to loosen up the glue. Careful not to hold it too close or too long or it will damage the finish. If it’s over 75 years old good chance it’s hide glue.

If the tenon is stuck that’s a good indicator it’s well built.

Orient the grain in the stretcher vertically for maximum strength against a foot..
 

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Aim it at the stuck piece and around the hole. The objective is to head the wood and transfer that to the glue. It should come out easily, you probably won’t need much. One way is a piece of rubber and pliers.

Use a screw not a nail. Trim head screws work good you don’t need to counter sink.

What’s the smoke damage? You could just sand it and refinish. If it’s a Windsor type chair they are usually painted.
 

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I wouldn't take it apart. The angle which that rung is broken you could just glue it back together with wood glue and put a spring clamp on it. You might have to put a bar clamp across the exterior to keep the joint from sliding apart. It will make a strong joint if done right.
This isn’t a given. Do a dry clamp first. You might just get lucky. The few broken spindles I’ve repaired the spindles pretty much fell out of the tenons so it’s not an issue. One that I left in and tried Steve’s suggestion I couldn’t get aligned,
 
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