Glad you asked these questions. I've got a butcher block counter top build planned for the spring of next year. Was planning on using titebond 3 and either poly or butcherblock finish from general finishes. I will defiantly be paying attention to this thread.
I would go ahead and assume the counter top will get wet and use an exterior glue such as titebond III. The abuse a counter top would get I would use a conversion varnish or an epoxy coating for a finish.
The counter top will be used on a kitchen island roughly 28 inch deep by 54 inch long. titebond 3 was what I was thinking and for finish was either thinking mineral oil or linseed oil? I also thought about general finish pre-cat urethane or there butcher block finish. Counter top will be made from maple. I looked into just buying one and the price was around $367 for this size. Think it will be cheaper doing it myself
If the butcher block is going to be used as a cutting board then I would use the mineral oil rather than a film finish. If it is going to be used for a counter then the pre-cat urethane would work alright. It wouldn't be as hard but certainly be easier to recoat from time to time. I think you are looking at about 25 board feet of wood and I'm getting maple for three bucks a board foot so I think you would save by making the top yourself. The 54" length may be a problem with waste unless you can get 10' boards.
If you are refering to the mineral oil I would apply it and keep it wet for 15 minutes and let is soak up as much as it will and then wipe off the excess and let dry. Then whenever it starts looking dry put another coat on. At first it will seem like it needs too much re-applying but it time you will need to re-oil it less and less.
Get a big thing of mineral oil from the pharmacy. It's used for constipation. Get a block of bees wax, will run about 20 shipped for a pound if I remember right. Then heat up the mineral oil in a pan then apply a few coats. Let it dry a little while in between. You really can't go wrong with it. Just pour it on, and spread it around with a paper towel. Then melt in some bees wax and apply that.
Of course if it's not actually going to be used to chop food I wouldn't use mineral oil and bees wax. It's not durable. Meant for use with real knives that you don't want to be dull.
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