Experienced woodturners have different personal preferences for the bevel angles on their gouges. For most, it is a matter of personal preference, or what works best the way they use tools. Professional woodturners may have multiple turning tool sets with different bevel angles depending on the kind of wood they are turning.
You are right, adjusting how far the tool sticks out will alter the bevel angle. An important skill to learn is being able to match the bevel angle perfectly every time. Otherwise, you will find yourself cutting new bevels too often and wearing down your tools.
The Robert Sorby set that I use has three gouges: Spindle roughing gouge (843H), Spindle gouge (840H), and Bowl gouge (842H). The factory bevel angle for each of them is 45 degrees.
In "Woodturning, A Foundation Course", Keith Rowley recommends the following angles for hobbyists: Roughing-out gouges: 45 degrees, Spindle gouges: 35 degrees, and Bowl Gouges: 55 degrees.
Furthermore, the shape of the tool profile can also vary between woodturners. Some prefer very exaggerated fingernail profiles, while others prefer them nearly straight across. Roughing gouges are usually straight across or nearly so, and the other gouges have a fingernail profile. The subtle differences in shapes and the names of various turning tool profiles is a graduate course in itself.
-> Find a way to map or measure tool bevel angle to Wolverine protrusion length. You should know the angle that you expect to get and be able to set it consistently. Choose average bevel angles to start. 45 degrees on the gouges would be okay.
-> Learn to sharpen and resharpen the exact same bevel angle. After that, you can play with bevel angles to learn the differences. First, sharpen with consistency.
-> Write down the Wolverine settings for each individual tool as a memory aid and to check setting consistency. Keep in mind that the settings may change over time as the grinding wheel and the tool wear down.