I would not sit in either the bolted or just glued chair. Of course I also weigh 240 pounds. (not all of it muscle)
The wood would have to be thicker for me to feel it is a safe design for all comers. If the chair is being limited in who can sit on it I would not use any metal fasteners.
The J, C. White Cloud chair is a totally different design using different principles for strength. I would have no qualms sitting in that chair.
I am one of those that really likes to be supportive of ideas that are well outside what I would design or do. As a teacher, it's part of the job to always be encouraging. I would also add, I'm not a big fan of "ultra modern"...(aka the Jetsons) design styles, but that's just me being old fashioned.
So, I diffentiently want the OP to follow his own interest and feelings in pursuing this design. That is what will make it his...
Nevertheless, GeorgeC. has raised a critical and very valid point in..."Good Design"...system and..."Best Practice."
Your design..."has to be"...safe for the worst case scenario!!!
I liked the video, but the fact that the chair failed the way it did (catastrophically!!!!!)
suggest that even though it may score high in the "cool and modern" scale, it fail horridly in the "bomb proof" design area.
Bolts or Pegs...neither are going to change this design from failing in a very bad way if overloaded, stress by age, or sat in by someone that shouldn't...
It does need to be re-designed to accommodate only failing (if it did) in such a way that the occupant does not take a fall like in the video.
To be encouraging, I still believe it can be done with an application of one of the systems I mentioned already adapted to this design.