Ikea uses particle board, but they also use fasteners that are designed to hold it together.
The ready to assemble (RTA) furniture manufacturers' association (of which Ikea is a member) commissioned a testing laboratory to test various fasteners on plywood, particle board and MDF. I found the results on line, it requires some careful reading to get the most out of it.
The kitchen cabinet manufacturers' association commissioned a similar test. They were far less concerned about racking strength (side to side flexing) than was the RTA manufacturers.
But still, their results were similar.
The test was basically a shelf that was attached to a vertical board with no glue (they were testing the fasteners, not the joint. And in many cases glue was not an available choice. They then proceeded to use a tensile tester to pull down on the edge of the shelf.
At the bottom of the list in terms of strength was the dado. It failed before any reading on the tensile tester would register. (Remember this is anchored on one side only.)
Next was the metal dowels and turn fasteners. They added little racking strength.
Wood screws were next.
A big jump in racking strength occured when they switched to Confirmat screws, which with their wide barrels they behaved like both dowels and screws providing both racking strength and holding power.
And finally dowels. Apparently the lowly dowel in sheet goods fared the best.
Regardless of the fastener chosen, it should be placed no closer to the end of the panel than 2". The fasterners need support on both sides or the racking stresses will split the panel.
Racking strength on kitchen cabinets is much less of an issue as the wall generally becomes a structural member. It does become an issue for islands and I think I would put a piece of plywood across the entire back of an island to mimic the wall. It will get covered anyway so it is just the cost of a piece of plywood.
I'm sure you can find the same research if you google it. I have not looked at is for several years and perhaps some new findings have been made.