Here is my take, .02, whatever you want to call it.
You've invested a considerable amount of time in that table, nice work on what you have done so far. Sounds like you are doing this for a Client as well.
I would address the issue in the best possible way, this is your work, your name, your reputation. IMO slapping some veneer tape on it is easy, but honestly, is it the type of work you want your reputation to reflect? They aren't buying an IKEA table...
You have options:
Remake the edge.
Narrow the edge.
Find some way to slot the edge and inlay, might be as much, or more work than just remaking the edge.
Or find some way just to slot out the dowel areas and make a pattern inlay.
For the inlay there are a lot of options, you could use contrasting wood. You could use maple end grain, you could use a combination, really depends on the overall look you want.