For the window I can see that c & s would give the strength but I'm struggling to visualise how it will work away from the actual joints as I don't want the beading along the length of the rail and stile. The frame needs to be plain square stock with a rabbet taken out. The glaze panel just pushes into the rabbet and is secured in place with a bead.
This may solve your problem. You don't need a C&S set, or T&G bits. You can do it two different ways. Both ways only require a corner joint. Take your four pieces and you can make a simple miter joint, half lap, or a M&T for the corner. Lay out the four pieces and cut the ends accordingly for the corner joint. Leave loose...don't assemble...yet.
You can do the rabbet (the step for the glass) before you join the corners by marking out on the backside where the rails meet the stiles, the line for the rabbet. Then, you could rout the step and stop it at the pencil line, and square off the corners with a chisel. You can rout with a handheld and a straight faced bit, or use a rabbeting bit with a bearing. Doing it this way you can see what you're doing. If you do it on a router table, you will have to place some stops for where the bit will stop.
Once the rabbet is done, assemble the four pieces, and the frame is ready for finishing and glass.
The other way would be to assemble the four pieces using any method for making the joints...miter, half lap, M&T, etc. Once together, just run a rabbeting bit with a bearing around the backside to make the rabbet (the step). Draw a pencil line to square out the corners, and chisel them square.
To set the glass, you could use a small quarter round moulding as a nail on stop. Or, you could use panel retainers. If you figure the depth of the rabbet, and add the thickness of the glass, you can rabbet the step, and when the glass gets laid in, it flushes out to the backside. Then you can use a half round or flat moulding (nail on) to hold the glass. Part of it would be on the glass, part of it would be on the frame. This trims out the backside nicely.