Rebate Plane - Woodworking Talk - Woodworkers Forum
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post #1 of 36 Old 08-19-2018, 09:03 AM Thread Starter
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Rebate Plane

Going to attempt tool making with a rebate plane project. 90% of this project is about precision and chisel work, so it will be a good skill-building exercise. So at the suggestion of @gmercer_48083, I'll give it a shot.

I've had a piece of 12x12x2 rough sawn quilted maple for about 8 months now. Picked it up for $20 at a garage sale, and didn't really know what to do with it. Today I cut a piece off to use for this project. You can make the plane out of a simple pine 2x4, but I wanted a lifetime tool, plus it looks fancy. The wedge will probably be walnut. Sorry for the photo quality. I used flash to bring out the figuring, but it made the rest of the pic a little dark.

So this is where we begin this journey. I'll square up this piece with my trusty #5, then it's off to Lowe's to see if I can find a decent 1/2" chisel to use.
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post #2 of 36 Old 08-20-2018, 11:15 AM
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Anthony, This is my basic plan showing the type of rebate plane. This plane can be made two different ways. Shown in the photo are the parts that can be glued together to make the plane. The second way is to start out with parts 1&2 as a single block, and you cut the bed and breast angles, then remove the area of wood between.

The bed angle in this drawing is 55 degrees, and uses a 10 degree wedge. for softer woods the bed angle could be 45 degrees instead.

Part 3 gives more stability when glued onto Part2, yet still provides clearance for side escapement of the shavings.

The photo does not show a fence that could be added later.


This is the type of plane that anyone considering to make a plane should begin with. A great place to start out.
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post #3 of 36 Old 08-20-2018, 11:20 AM
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Anthony, Do you have a table saw or bandsaw? or are yo making strictly with hand tools?

Gary

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post #4 of 36 Old 08-20-2018, 12:38 PM Thread Starter
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Quote:
Originally Posted by gmercer_48083 View Post
Anthony, Do you have a table saw or bandsaw? or are yo making strictly with hand tools?
I have a bandsaw, but it's just a POS tabletop Porter Cable model. It's basically useless for anything other than 1/4" plywood or less LOL. Definitely money I wish I could have back.

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post #5 of 36 Old 08-20-2018, 02:09 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AmishElectricCo View Post
I have a bandsaw, but it's just a POS tabletop Porter Cable model. It's basically useless for anything other than 1/4" plywood or less LOL. Definitely money I wish I could have back.
Do you have a miter saw? if not you will have to cut the bed and breast angles by hand. To do it by hand, you can make a jig that clamps to the plane block, and use it to guide the saw as you cut down into the block.


Or, if you made this in 3 pieces as drawn Part2 would be cut into 2 pieces, then hand plane square (one piece at 55 degrees, one piece at 65 degrees). this could be done on your POS bandsaw, then cleaned up with a hand plane.


The wedge jig I showed in my bead plane files can be used on a bandsaw if you fashion a fence for the bandsaw.


after making the wedge at 10 degrees, and with a shim of the steel you will be using for the iron, both parts of Part 2 can be glued to Part1, using the wedge and iron to get the spacing right...just don't glue the wedge and iron as you do this.



I did make this plane once using a pine 2x4 and it works just fine. I'll send some Photos of examples.

Gary

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post #6 of 36 Old 08-20-2018, 02:51 PM
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Here are the photos,

The first and second are similar to the drawing...but thicker (One made with a pine 2x4 w/knots) (one made with rock maple). Both use a 1/2" iron and wedge for simplicity. Both have a fence on the bottom to limit blade exposure when used.


The third and fourth are still rebate planes but have a Tee shaped iron and a 1/4" tang and wedge, where you poke a finger through to clear the shavings. This plane type is a little more complicated to make, so I don't recommend it as a first plane to make. (one is a skewed plane to use cross grain).
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post #7 of 36 Old 08-20-2018, 04:37 PM Thread Starter
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Paul has a "poor man's" video where he makes a rebate plane very similar to your first and second pics. That's what I was using for inspiration - it's nothing fancy, just a single block of wood.

I do have a good miter saw, but I'll do this by hand with a saw and chisel.
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post #8 of 36 Old 08-20-2018, 06:06 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AmishElectricCo View Post
Going to attempt tool making with a rebate plane project. 90% of this project is about precision and chisel work, so it will be a good skill-building exercise. So at the suggestion of @gmercer_48083, I'll give it a shot.

I've had a piece of 12x12x2 rough sawn quilted maple for about 8 months now. Picked it up for $20 at a garage sale, and didn't really know what to do with it. Today I cut a piece off to use for this project. You can make the plane out of a simple pine 2x4, but I wanted a lifetime tool, plus it looks fancy. The wedge will probably be walnut. Sorry for the photo quality. I used flash to bring out the figuring, but it made the rest of the pic a little dark.

So this is where we begin this journey. I'll square up this piece with my trusty #5, then it's off to Lowe's to see if I can find a decent 1/2" chisel to use.
Think I'm going to forbid you from using that piece of wood your first attempt. Yes I am. You are forbidden! It is too beautiful to practice with. Practice with pine and when you get it like you want, you can use the maple. Love your content amish. Keep up the great posts.
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post #9 of 36 Old 08-21-2018, 09:25 AM
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They say grain direction is important. You want the grain to flow parallel, or downward toward the rear of the plane block, for it to last 200 years. I've heard apple wood was prized for planes. I made a coffin plane from apple, the color was beautiful and was easily worked. I can say that my rebate plane made from pine will probably last 50 plus years with moderate use. I love to see pictures of the progress of making planes.


On another note, you can make a basic rebate plane...then route a pattern to the bottom...then shape the iron to match...add a fence to the side for guidance, and you have a molding plane.


Don't forget to wax the plane bottom before using.
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Gary

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post #10 of 36 Old 08-21-2018, 09:37 AM
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This is a dumb question: doesn't the fence interfere with the edge of the iron/chisel? How do you set the depth of the iron if the fence is right there? Or does the iron cut down into the fence and make room for itself?
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post #11 of 36 Old 08-21-2018, 10:03 AM
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Quote:
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This is a dumb question: doesn't the fence interfere with the edge of the iron/chisel? How do you set the depth of the iron if the fence is right there? Or does the iron cut down into the fence and make room for itself?
Yes, The iron does cut into the fence a bit. A small groove in the fence is a good idea, and was implemented into the maple plane. The progression of learning and solutions go hand in hand.

On many antique planes you will find screw holes in the sides where fences were added at one time or another, and would work on narrow plane bodies as well.

Also note there is no nicker. I could have mounted a nicker, but found that with my marking gage (uses a blade instead of a pin) I can score a cut line before using the rebate plane to get a clean rebate.

A skewed rebate plane is nice, because it can be used cross grain as well as with the grain. As it is used, it pulls itself toward the wood as it is used with a fence.
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post #12 of 36 Old 08-21-2018, 08:03 PM Thread Starter
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Layout

Much to the dismay of @JohnTC, I'm going for the gusto and using this gorgeous piece of curly maple as my sacrificial test subject anyway. I figure it will keep me honest. I enjoy the challenge of precision work with hand tools, but patience is not one of my virtues. I tend to take my time when there's more at stake - and I certainly don't want to ruin this. Go big or go home, right?

Pic #1
You'll probably have to zoom in to see my layout marks. This block is 10" long. I measured in 6" from the heel and struck a line at 45 for the bed of the chisel (line at far right). The wedge has a 1:4.5" rise, and was traced out for the second line (middle). Finally, the chisel itself was traced to account for the thickness (line at far left).

The wedge will eventually be skewed along its top edge. A 100 line was struck on the top of the plane body and 80 on the bottom. This is to ensure the wedge cinches really tight.


Pic #2
The components of the rebate plane. I decided to use a 3/4" Stanley Sweetheart chisel. It's decent enough quality without breaking the bank, and I like that the handle comes off easily. 1/2" would've done the trick, but I figured it wouldn't hurt anything to go with a bigger size.

The wedge is from a rough sawn walnut board I have laying around. I cut this piece off just for this project. Planed smooth and sawn by hand.

Finally, the plane body. Grain is nice and straight, even along the bottom. Not 100% parallel, but it's darn close. I'm in my early 40's, so it will last to the end of my days at least.
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post #13 of 36 Old 08-21-2018, 09:32 PM
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Like another person said I would like to see you start with one made of pine first. That way you catch your mistakes and learn how to do it differently the next time. Also, you build your skills before using good wood.

I hope you continue to post pictures and text on this project. This is such a good post.
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post #14 of 36 Old 08-22-2018, 07:19 AM
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Sweet project - looking forward to seeing it happen.

Bill - Rochester MI
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"The trouble with quotes on the internet is that you never know if they are genuine."President Abraham Lincoln - 1876
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post #15 of 36 Old 08-22-2018, 07:41 AM Thread Starter
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Knife wall

This is as far as I got last night.

Traced over my layout lines with a marking knife, then used a chisel to pare down to the knife cut depth. This creates the infamous Paul Sellers "knife wall" that leaves a crisp line behind. Using Paul's in-the-vise method, everything is held secure easy peasy Japanese-y. Do people even say that anymore?

Decisions, decisions. From here, I could just continue with the chisels or grab a saw and cut to my depth line. I'm still not very good with a tenon saw, which would be perfect here. Maybe I'll practice on some pine after all.
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post #16 of 36 Old 08-22-2018, 09:04 AM
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Anthony, To guide your saw, you can cut a 1-1/2" scrap at your 10 degree skew angle, clamp it to your block and saw down using the scrap as a guide for the saw. Then flip the guide to cut the other side of the wedge pocket (both bed and breast angles will be skewed).

Practicing on pine is a good plan.
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post #17 of 36 Old 08-22-2018, 09:26 AM
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Go big or go home. It's kind of like holding onto that special bottle of wine you intend to drink for that special occasion, and then no occasion is special enough.
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post #18 of 36 Old 08-22-2018, 12:02 PM
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Anthony, Thinking about you plane build...I hope you realize that by making it a skewed plane it will be marginally more difficult to make. The wedge opening will be skewed as well as the wedge, and the iron. I recommend as a first plane project you keep the iron square instead of a skew, to get the feel of making your first plane. I hope you consider this before you begin.

Traditional plane wedges are 10-12 degrees, the larger the angle the less it will grip, or the easier it will loosen.

Gary

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post #19 of 36 Old 08-22-2018, 12:30 PM
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what is the plan for the irons?
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post #20 of 36 Old 08-22-2018, 12:32 PM Thread Starter
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Quote:
Originally Posted by gmercer_48083 View Post
Anthony, Thinking about you plane build...
Gary - check out Paul's "Poor Man's Rebate Plane" video.

The chisel iron rests flat against a 90 bed of the plane body. The bottom of the wedge that contacts the iron is also 90, but the top angle of the wedge is 100. I'm probably doing a lousy job of describing it and making it sound more complicated than it really is - so just watch the video. There's really not much to it.
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