When you say 10-3, do you mean Black-White-Green(or bare copper) or do you mean Black-Red-White?
The cables you refer to are generally called 10-2/G or 10-3/G, the G refers to a bare ground wire. To an outbuilding, perhaps it's direct-burial wire, but in any case a bare copper wire isn't needed. Instead you drive a ground rod at that building and connect the ground wires from the outlets to that. And where the white wires and the green or bare wires all go to the same buss-bar in the panel of the main building, at the outbuilding the white wires are kept separate on their own bar.
If you have 10-3 that is Black-Red-White you've got 240 and a capacity of 7,200 watts. If you've got Black-White-Ground you have 120 and 3,600 watts.
By code you're supposed to de-rate motors and heating circuits to 80% of those numbers.
If you've got 240, and the saw runs 240, with no other load your voltage drop would be 1.2%, and you are fine.
If all you have is 120, and the saw will run on 120, the voltage drop will be 4.9%, the saw will run OK but you'll want to take it easy and avoid loading the motor with heavy cuts one right after the other. Keep the saw running idle for a bit between cuts.
Above assumes copper wire.