Steve and wood both gave excellent advice, that chart particularly. Personally, i think that a lot of the stuff people throw around massively overcomplicates things, like those guys who insist that you need a 14 1/2 hook angle for cutting walnut but maple responds best to a hatb grind with a 5 degree hook angle sharpened under a full moon. Those are the guys you want to ignore. So, lets simplify some terms!
First, tooth type. Theres a few out there, the 3 big ones that ive seen the most are ATB, flat and triple chip grind. Theres more out there, but those 3 cover the majority. First, ATB blades; the acronym means 'alternating top bevel' which pretty well describes the way the teeth are formed. Each tooth is ground to a point thats biased either to the left or the right, and the direction of bias alternates between teeth, so left-right-left-right. This tooth style is used mostly on crosscut and general purpose blades, the points of the teeth do an excellent job severing wood fibers, leading to a finer cut across the grain. Subsets of the ATB grind also include Hi-ATB, which has a much finer point on the teeth, great for crosscutting at the expense of durability, and ATB-R, which breaks up the tooth pattern with a flat top tooth (l-r-l-r-raker usually), which generally leaves a flat bottom groove and helps the blade preform better in ripping. Incidentally, my favorite general-purpose blades are ATB-r, as they handle everything from ripping to cutting sheet good and leave a good cut, though they dont excel at anything.
Next up in tooth pattern is flat, commonly seen on blades as FTG (flat top grind). Again, the name is fairly descriptive, the top of the tooth is flat, without the points you see on the aforementioned ATB grind. You generally find this style grind on ripping blades, where tearout isnt as much of a concern as getting material out of the way. Excellent for ripping solid woods, not so much for most other tasks.
The third of the big 3 blade types is the triple chip grind. For this one, picture a flar top grind, only on every other tooth the corners have been clipped off, so the tip of the tooth looks a little like half an octagon. This is the blade style you want to reach for when cutting materials prone to chipout, like melamine, or brittle materials like OSB. Metal cutting blades also tend to use this tooth style. This style grind shares the same tearout issue as a FTG blade, so crosscuts in solid wood arent the best use, but if you use a lot of sheet good this is the blade style to look for